Umbrellas have been used for centuries and have been improved upon throughout history. Today, using modern and old technology, we have the modern open - close umbrella to protect us from the rain. Modern umbrellas have many parts that make umbrellas convenient and useful in inclement weather. Depending on the design of an umbrella, it can have a lot of details to the mechanics of it. Here are the design aspect of a modern day umbrella from the bottom up.
Handle: The handle of an umbrella makes it easy and convenient to carry and hold onto in wet conditions. here are two main types of handles. First there is a crook handle, which is shaped like a hook, also known as a hook handle. The hook handle of the umbrella was designed to not only grip the umbrella handle in the rain, but also to carry your umbrella on your arm so that you could be hands free. The hook also allowed you to hang your umbrella to dry. You can still find many umbrellas with the hook handle, but many modern umbrellas now have a rubber handle. Rubber offers a durable yet comfortable handle when it is raining. Second type of handle is the straight handle. Often times modern, straight handle, umbrellas will have a nylon loop to carry your umbrella on your wrist for hands free comfort.
Tip cup: A tip cup is a lip above the handle of the umbrella. This is where the umbrella's canopy rests when it is closed so that it doesn't slide down past the tip cup. Sometimes the tip cup is actually part of the handle and sometimes it is a separate part.
Shaft: The shaft is a pole that makes up the body of the umbrella. The pole, or shaft, rises up from the handle and the tip cup. Inside of the shaft are tension springs that assist the umbrella in opening and closing.
Bottom spring: The bottom spring is the spring placed at the bottom part of the shaft (above the handle). The bottom springs allows the umbrella to open and close.
Center Spring (only on telescopics): The center spring allows the shaft of the umbrella to become shorter or longer and acts as a propel in the opening motion of the umbrella. Not all umbrellas are telescopic, therefore not all umbrellas will have a center spring.
Top Spring: The top spring is located up higher on the shaft, but bellow the runner when the umbrella is in its open position. The top spring allows the umbrella to open and close.
Runner: The runner is the part of the umbrella that slides up and down the tube or shaft of the umbrella when you open and close it. It is a T-shaped joint that allows the umbrella to collapse.
Tube: The tube is the space on the shaft between the runner and the top of the umbrella when the umbrella is in its open position.
Rib: The ribs run from the top notch to the seam of the canopy and support the canopy of the umbrella. The ribs are what give the canopy its bubble shape when the umbrella is open.
Stretcher: The stretcher is what stretches out the canopy when the umbrella is in its open position. The stretcher runs from the runner and connects to the canopy.
Top Notch: The top notch is at the top of the umbrella tube. The top notch connects the shaft to the canopy.
Open Cap: The open cap sits above the the canopy of the umbrella on the shaft and keeps the top of the canopy in its place and allows for tension of the canopy when the umbrella is open.
End: Above the open cap is the a pole called the end of the umbrella. The end of the umbrella is still part of the shaft.
Ferrule: The very tip or top of the umbrella, above the canopy, is the ferrule. Ferrules can be plain or decorative and can double as a walking stick or sometimes a weapon. However, keep in mind, most modern umbrellas are not designed as a cane, walking stick or a weapon.
Canopy: The canopy is the tent part of the umbrella that opens into an arc or dome shape and protects you from the rain.